Problems of Ion Exchange Filter (IOX)
Ion Exchange Filter (IOX) is made of Ion Exchange Resin or Polymer such as Crosslinked Polystyrene Sulfonate that is Insoluble Matrix having 0.25 – 0.50 mm in size. This Resin is very porous material and full of High Surface Area to adhere to other Ions. IOX is composed of Cation + Resin and Anion – Resin. Ion Exchange Resin is made for Water Filtration.
Ion Exchange Resin was developed and tested by Pete Dufresne Sr. about 25 years ago in Canada. Testing on Phosphate Ester and PAG (Polyalkylene Glycol) fluids in an attempt to remove acid from these synthetic oils. In the first filtration stage Ion Exchange Resin was contained in a filter cartridge and allow oil to flow through the resin media to remove acid and second stage filtration the oil is flowed through a Pleated Paper filter to remove solid particulate.
- Misunderstanding of Ion Exchange and Incorrect Oil Applications:
- Ion Exchange is capable of removing acid in synthetic oils such as Phosphate Ester and PAG (Polyalkylene Glycol) and only for High Polar Compound fluids. However, IOX is inefficient in removing acid from lubrication that its base oil is made of Group 1 or Group 2. There is little scientific documents referring to acid removal in Mineral Oils.
- Ion Exchange has little to do with varnish removal from Mineral Oils from Group 1 and Group 2. Polyolester Group has very Low Polar Compound so IOX is ineffective in Varnish and Acid removal. Especially Transformer Oil that is a Non Polar Compound, IOX has almost no effect on Ionic Process in the Non Polar Environments.
- Varnish becomes High Polar Compound that came from Base Oils. However, the Ion Exchange Reaction needs Ionic substrate to begin Charge Separation so Varnish can be removed by exchanging of Ion in IOX. Varnish Oxidation occurs from Free Radical Reaction, not Ion Mechanism. Therefore, the Exchange Reaction can not be taken place in Free Radical Exchange.
- Ion Exchange Resin is made of Water. So IOX contains 70% of Water inside. When Ion Exchange Reaction occurs, Water will migrate from IOX Resin to the oil in order to exchange for Varnish or Acid movement from oil or else there will be a side effect in the oil for this exchange of ion. After varnish was removed, Ion Exchange will release H2O molecule back to the oil in exchange of expelling the free radicals of oil oxidation. This will require a Vacuum Distillation to remove water from oil after Varnish or Acid has been removed. IOX supplier claims that water will be disappeared later on which is not true. Actually water in the oil after IOX filtration will evolve into Hydroxyl (OH–) Group which is made of Hydrogen and Oxygen molecules in the oil. Water did not disappear but become Hydroxyl in the oil.
- IOX Particulate Filter is very small in size having Small Surface Area, thus Inadequate Dirt Holding Capacity can undertake the NAS 9 or ISO Code 20/18/16 oil cleanliness. So Solid Particulate in the oil is still a pending problem. This type of particulate filter will not be able to achieve NAS Class 3-5 as claimed by IOX supplier.
Ion Exchange Resin
Ion Exchange Filter Unit
The above information is based on our experiences with users and their comments who wishes the manufacturer can improve their products. Please review with good discretion.
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